War I: During World War I, DST was first
adopted in Germany, which was quickly followed by
Britain and countries on both sides, and eventually,
America. Daylight replaced artificial lighting and
saved precious fuel for the war effort.
War I: American farmers fought and defeated
urban dwellers and President Woodrow Wilson and
got DST repealed, returning the country to "God's
Time.” Spotty and inconsistent use of daylight
saving time in the United States and around the
world caused problems, unusual incidents and, occasionally,
tragedies. For example, disregard of a change to
DST caused a major train wreck in France, killing
two and injuring many.
War II: All combatants on both sides quickly
adopted DST to save vital energy resources for the
War. The U.S. enacted FDR's year-round DST law just
40 days after Pearl Harbor.
and High Cost of Non-Uniform DST, 1960s:
Widespread confusion was created when each locality
could start and end DST as it desired. One year,
23 different pairs of DST start and end dates were
used in Iowa alone. And on one West Virginia bus
route, passengers had to change their watches seven
times in 35 miles! The situation led to millions
of dollars of costs to several industries, especially
transportation and communications. Extra railroad
timetables alone cost the equivalent today of over
$12 million per year.
Embargo, 1973: The Arab Oil Embargo caused
the first prolonged peacetime energy shortage in
the United States, and the country quickly established
year-round daylight saving time to save energy.
The U. S. Department of Transportation found that
with almost no cost as compared to other energy
conservation options, DST reduced the national electrical
load by over 1%, saving 3,000,000 barrels of oil
each month. After the crisis was over, the U.S.
reverted to six months of DST, from May through
October. This period as extended in 1986 to include
in Europe, 1996: After many years of non-uniformity
of DST policy in Europe, and especially between
the Continent and the United Kingdom, the European
Union adopted the summer time period that had been
in use in the U.K. for many years: the last Sunday
in March to the last Sunday in October.
in the U. S., 2007: As part of the Energy
Policy Act of 2005, the U.S. DST period was extended
by three-to-four weeks in the spring and one week
in the fall, commencing 2007.
Other Effects: Daylight saving time has
affected an immense breadth of people, places, policies,
and activities. For a deeper glimpse into daylight
saving time's wide reaching impacts, view
the Index from Seize the Daylight
Observance of Daylight Saving Time
William Willett would be happy to know that daylight
saving time is now employed in about seventy countries
around the world, including almost every major industrialized
nation. It affects well over a billion people each
year. Sunrises, sunsets, and day lengths of countries
near the equator do not vary enough during the year
to justify the use of DST, but even in those countries
it is sometimes adopted, especially for energy conservation.
It remains controversial in several locations, such
as Queensland, Australia.
United States: In the United States
from 1987 through 2006, a daylight saving time period
of almost seven months was in effect: from 2 a.m.
on the first Sunday in April to 2 a.m. on the last
Sunday in October.
A law passed in 2005 extended the daylight saving
time period by about one month, beginning in 2007.
Thus for 2007 and beyond, the daylight saving time
a.m. on the second Sunday in March
2 a.m. on the first Sunday in November
Currently, the entire country observes this DST
period of almost eight months, except for the states
of Arizona and Hawaii, and the U. S. insular areas
of Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands, American
Samoa, and Guam--all of which have chosen to stay
on standard time all year. In 2005, Indiana, which
had long been a continuing hotbed of DST controversy,
passed a law adopting statewide daylight saving
time, starting in 2006.
The DST Period in the United States:
2005, from Sunday April 3 to Sunday October 30.
For 2006, from Sunday April 2 to Sunday October
For 2007, from Sunday March 11 to Sunday November
For 2008, from Sunday March 9 to Sunday November
For 2009, from Sunday March 8 to Sunday November
For 2010, from Sunday March 14 to Sunday November
For 2011, from Sunday March 13 to Sunday November
For 2012, from Sunday March 11 to Sunday November
For 2013, from Sunday March 10 to Sunday November
For 2014, from Sunday March 9 to Sunday November
For 2015, from Sunday March 8 to Sunday November
United Kingdom and European Union:
In these countries, a "summer time" (daylight
saving time) period of seven months is utilized:
UTC/GMT on the last Sunday in March
1 a.m. UTC/GMT on the last Sunday in October
The Summer Time Period in the United Kingdom
and the European Union:
2005, from Sunday March 27 to Sunday October 30.
For 2006, from Sunday March 26 to Sunday October
For 2007, from Sunday March 25 to Sunday October
For 2008, from Sunday March 30 to Sunday October
For 2009, from Sunday March 29 to Sunday October
For 2010, from Sunday March 28 to Sunday October
For 2011, from Sunday March 27 to Sunday October
For 2012, from Sunday March 25 to Sunday October
For 2013, from Sunday March 31 to Sunday October
For 2014, from Sunday March 30 to Sunday October
For 2015, from Sunday March 29 to Sunday October